Oil-bearing societies at Moreni,Romania from 1895 until 1948

Les sondes de Moreni.
Astra Romana-dutch capital-” Royal Dutch Shell” from "Astra"and "Regatul Român"society conjunction existing from 1910 until 1948.
Concordia-conjunction from ”Telega Oil ”and ”Bustenari”society with belgian society existing from 1907 until 1948.
Columbia -Romanian-French petroleum society owned by ,,Omnium International de Pétrol” existing from 1905 until 1948.
Creditul Minier-existing from 1919 until 1948.
I.R.D.P.-romanian capital-”Industria Română de Petrol ”existing from 1920 until 1948.
Moreni-Ghirdoveni .

Moreni-Tuicani -”Exploitation Petrolifère Armand Taubés ”.
Redeventa-existing from 1918 until 1948.
Regatul Român-german and romanian capital existing from 1905 until conjunction with ,,Astra”.
Româno-Americană -american capital owned by ”Standard Oil Co. ” existig from 1904 until 1948.
Stavropoleos-Moreni Oil Prop. -belongs to ”Unirea”society with english capital existing from 1922 until 1948.
Steaua Romana- first appearance in 1895 .
Standard Oil Company New Jersey in Europe.
The Romanian oil filds begginig production in 1857,are the older commercial fields in the world,antedating those of rhe United States by two years.Here the only American company operating was Standard Oil of New Jersey.In 1905 organize the Romana-Americana(*Romana-Americana* Societate Anonoma pentru Industria,Comertul si Exportul Petrolului) which,by 1928,had assets of more than 18 million $.It has its own electric power plant,and ownes a reservoire at Constanta,connected by pipeline with Moreni.In 1929 company produced 426540 tons of petroleum.The Romana-Americana was holds a block of 150000 shares in the romanian company Creditul Minier,the largest domestically organized producer,and as a result of negotiations in 1928 it acquired 49 drilling rights from the Subsolul Roman company.It was operates the Aurora Company on lease and it purchased in 1926 nine small company and negotiated for the acquisition of the Phoenix Oil and Transport Co.,Ltd.Rated solely on the basis of its own productions it operates 30 wells,and produced in 1929 about 10% of the Roumanian total(outranked by the Shell Oil and Romano-Anglo-French(Steaua-Romana) combines).The production of the Phoenix,Romana-Americana and Creditul Minier companies together totaled 27% of the Roumanian output which,in 1929,amounted to 4.8 million tones.
For the first time in petroleum industry in Romania:
1907 The Romanian-American Company drilled in Moreni the first Rotary-system well (Speranta well).
1921 The testing of the gas-lift extraction system at the “15 AR” well, in Moreni, by ASTRA ROMANA.
1926 The first use of the preventer at 100 AR Moreni well by ASTRA ROMANA.
1927 The construction of gas pipeline between Moreni and Floresti-15 Km by Steaua Romana.
1928 The construction of gas pipeline between Moreni and Ploiesti by Astra&Steaua Romana.
1931 The first gas injection at Dacian Moreni oil fields.
Romanian Petroleum Statistics-1936

Steaua Romana, Moreni oil company. Iliana oilwell coin.
Monde Et Voyages Larousse. N°170 Du 01.02.1938 Sondes Petrolieres A Moreni ,Valachie

The destruction of Campina oil field in 1916.

CAMPINA OILFIELD,1916 - Situated immediately north of Baicoi, is also on the Ploesti-Predeal railway line. The oil field has been in production for the last thirty years and is on the point of becoming exhausted.Oil is found in the Meotic series between 300 and 500 meters. The exploitation belongs almost entirely to the German owned Steaua Romana, who here also had their refinery,the largest in Romania.The field possessed 21 drilling and 122 producing wells, and yielded a combined production of 270 tons per day.Prior to the date of destruction some 20,000 to 30,000tons of benzine had been run down five or six of the wells. Effectual plugging was carried out on these and the other wells. The average time required to drill in a new well with the percussion system is about eight months under normal conditions. The refinery, which had a working capacity of 1,800 tons per day, was completely destroyed.The stocks of oil amounting to about 60,000 tons were fired on the night of the 5th December.The refinery being situated in the centre of the town.The last work o f destruction was carried out when the enemy was actually entering the town.

Arbanasi-Policiori oilfield.

The field was opened in 1908, the oil-bearing strata was found in the meotic sands at 450 to 550 metres. At begining the time needed for drilling was 7 months, but this average was reached only when firs world war started , 9 months would be a fair average under normal conditions.This oilfield lies in the Buzeu Valley and has been developed between 1912 and 1916 when were 93 producing and 40 drilling wells owned by 6 companies the most important of which was the German owned Steaua Romana. In 1916 after plugging and firing, the wells, the timber stocks, workshops, power; electric light and water stations were completely destroyed.

Buzau refineries and oil deposit destroyed during the Romanian army's withdrawal in 1916

1.BUZEU-NAFTA - A Belgian Company operating in Arbanasi. There were three reservoirs containing 4 , 5 0 0 tons of crude oil, but owing to their close proximity to the road, along which troops were passing, the oil was not fired round the reservoirs, but in previously, constructed dams some 300-400 metres distant.The reservoirs in this instance remained intact.
2.SATURN - This was a fairly important refinery with a working, capacity of 200 tons per day, and equipped for manufacturing lubricating oils.The stocks of oil and products, some.10,800 tons, were all fired in dams which had been previously built around the reservoires completeley destroing them.Small channels were cut leading into the refinery and along which oil flowed.The place was then fired and completely demolished.
3.GOLDENSTEIN - A small Roumanian refinery with a working capacity of 15 tons per day. As it was situated on the main road, which was blocked with traffic,it was decided not to fire it.The stocks of oil, 1,300 tons, were all run off, but the machinery was wrecked as the retinery.
4.GOVERNMENT DEPOSIT - This belonged to the government pipe line system and was rented out to the various companies for the purpose of accommodating them with storage. At the time of destruction there were 12,000 tons of oil stored in these reservoirs which were fired and wrecked with the exception of five reservoirs, which,not having had any oil in them could not be destroyed.
5.STEAUA ROMANA - The deposits of this german owned company amounted to 17,430 tons tons of oil from their Arbanasi field.The large 7,500 to reservoir together,with two smaller ones could not be destroyed owing to their close proximity to the road and railway station. The oil was led off through an 8-inch line to dams a kilometer distant and was fired.

Oil wells in Ochiuri,Dambovita,Romania

Field Cluster Moreni-Ochiuri oil wells in 1926.
Ochiuri-Razvad oilfield,1916.This oilfield is lying immediately east of Targoviste.Development began in 1910 and the producing area was entirely owned by the Astra Romana company, who had 3 producing wells yielding about 180 tons of oil per day and 7 drilling wells . In addition to this company the Steaua Romana owns 2 drilling wells. This field produces from a depth of from 380 to 450 metres in the Dacian formation,which is covered by Levantine beds. One water source of importance has to be shut off before running into the oil sand and the average time required for completing a well is six months. All the drilling here was done by the Canadian system. The average time indicated for drilling a well presupposes the existence of all necessary installation, tools and power, as well as skilled labour plus local knowledge of the formation. Without these essentials experts agree that at least double the time is required and it can be safely assumed that new wells, cannot be drilled in a shorter period.. It was a noticeable fact that even a small field such as this, was equipped with large numbers of steam and belt-pumps, large electric motors and steam engines and a vast amount of drilling, fishing and bailing materials and tools.

Pleasa & Cristianu oil wells

Astra Romana oil society. In the background can be seen oil wells on Pleasa & Cristianu hills.

Tintea oilfield

Oil wells at Tintea,Romania in 1911.

Tintea - This field is a continuation of the Moreni-Baicoi line, and at the time of destruction during the Romanian army's withdrawal in 1916 was producing 170 tons per day. 22 drilling wells and 41 producing wells were destroved together with 8,500 tons of oil.

Oil eruptions at well nr.160 Romana-Americana(subsidiary of Standard Oil Co. )

28th May 1929.In Moreni area,a big disaster occured.On a Plateau of Moreni,called Tuicani was 160RA well ,property of the Romanian-American Society.When drillings were at about 1460 metres the gas force reached its maximum.At this time the chisel reached the oil bearing bed and the force of gas blow the derrick in the air at about 400 metres.Because of sparks the well burst into flames.The flames grew and grew reaching 100 metres in high.
By using the pumps,a great water dam was made.The heat from the flames was so great that the teams couldn*t get closer then 300 metres.By chance,there were no victim.According to the specialist the damages was over 100 million lei.In the next day the column of fire was 60-70 metres in high and a whole region it was lightened.It was very well seen from Ploiesti (50 km away) or even Chitila (85 km away).Many birds around the area didn*t migrate that year and trees remained green The well burn for two and a half years and in this time the lost amount of oil was huge and many tryings to put the fire down has ended with no effect and human life lost.Never had a fire burned so long and so hard as Romania's Moreni No. 160RA . A ferocious blaze that flamed for over two years and lit the skies for as far as seventy miles, the Moreni No. 160RA had already claimed the lives of fourteen men by the time Romanian oil executives agreed to the innovative approach proposed by maverick firefighter, Myron Kinley.In 1931, when Myron went to Romania to put out a fire which had raged for two years, his fame became international. Every new fire was a new problem. In Romania, the caved-in well had made a crater 250 ft. wide and 65 ft. deep filled with small ground fires and a tangled web of melted pipeline. It took Kinley six months to lick the fire.American engineer Myron Kinley receive after the fire ended,a 50 thausand dollars,a fortune for that time.In september 1931 the Great Fire ended by itself but still wenton slowly untill 4 th of november.
Romania-the greatest oil disaster 1929,Moreni

Actual photos at 160RA site.
A crater is still visible even today,a great crater and a carbonize ground black and red.
Burned rocks and ground after exposure at high temperature for 850 days.
A crater still remains after more then 70 years;as you can see oil extraction continue today.
The bell used to pull out the flames .

Oil extraction at Moreni between World Wars

Moreni-oil wells in 1935.

Wooden Derricks at Moreni oil field-1927.
Oill wells on Pascov Valley,Moreni,Romania

Oil wells at Moreni in 1926.
Puits de petroles a Moreni.

Oil fields at Moreni,Romania in 1933.

Moreni is well know by its oil.The first document about the drillings dates from 1691.The exploatation beging after 1880 together with the oil distileries.Between 1910 and 1913 there were 16 oil companies,romanian and foreing.In 1913 obtain the first place on oil production in the country.Until 1916 the production keeps growing,than colapses because of the first world war.In 1930 50% of oil production came from Moreni.At the begining of the economical crisis,proprieties from Moreni produced 520 thousand tones of oil per year.The production dubled in 1930.Between the two world wars,the development of the town was proportional with the one of oil industry.The developments were made from private properties leased to some german,dutch and americans firms.Americans drilled for the first time a well with the Rotary system at Moreni.
Cricov Valley-Creditul Miner oilfield.

Oil field at Moreni-PascovValley.
Moreni Astra-Romana offices.

Tuicani plateau wells.

Cezeanu Valley wells.

Petrolimp in Romania

Im rumänischen petroleumgebiet.

Montée d'une chaudière à Bustenari - 12 Mai 1904

Montée d'une chaudière à Bustenari - 12 Mai 1904

Gura Ocnitei oilfield

Rumänien, Moreni - Gura Ocnitei 1918.
Gura Ocnitei,1916 - This was a fairly important field, producing about 180 tons daily from the Dacian beds. Important exploratory deep drilling was being carried out and had already attained a measure of success. These deep wells (2) were thoroughly plugged. The other 18 drilling wells and 16 producing wells, belonging to the International Oil Company, were similarly dealt with and all stocks of oil fired.